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Endorphinergic Enhancement Attenuation of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) via Activation of Neuro-immunological Function in the Face of a Viral Pandemic

[ Vol. 10 , Issue. 2 ]


Kenneth Blum*, Edward J. Modestino, David Baron, Raymond Brewer, Panayotis Thanos, Igor Elman, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, B. William Downs, Debasis Bagchi, Thomas McLaughlin, Abdalla Bowirrat, A. Kenison Roy and Mark S. Gold   Pages 86 - 97 ( 12 )


Introduction: Polymorphic gene variants, particularly the genetic determinants of low dopamine function (hypodopaminergia), are known to associate with Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and a predisposition to PTSD. Addiction research and molecular genetic applied technologies supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have revealed the complex functions of brain reward circuitry and its crucial role in addiction and PTSD symptomatology.

Discussion: It is noteworthy that Israeli researchers compared mice with a normal immune system with mice lacking adaptive immunity and found that the incidence of PTSD increased several-fold. It is well established that raising endorphinergic function increases immune response significantly. Along these lines, Blum’s work has shown that D-Phenylalanine (DPA), an enkephalinase inhibitor, increases brain endorphins in animal models and reduces stress in humans. Enkephalinase inhibition with DPA treats Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) by restoring endorphin function. The Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) can characterize relevant phenotypes, genetic risk for stress vulnerability vs. resilience. GARS could be used to pre-test military enlistees for adaptive immunity or as part of PTSD management with customized neuronutrient supplementation upon return from deployment.

Conclusion: Based on GARS values, with particular emphasis on enhancing immunological function, pro-dopamine regulation may restore dopamine homeostasis. Recognition of the immune system as a “sixth sense” and assisting adaptive immunity with Precision Behavioral Management (PBM), accompanied by other supportive interventions and therapies, may shift the paradigm in treating stress disorders.


Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS™), Pro-dopamine regulation (KB220PAM), hypodopaminergia, immune system, endorphinergic.


Western University Health Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Pomona, CA, Department of Psychology, Curry College, Milton, MA, Western University Health Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Pomona, CA, Division of Precision Behavioral Management, Geneus Health, San Antonio, TX, Behavioral Neuropharmacology & Neuroimaging Laboratory on Addiction, Research Institute on Addictions, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard School of Medicine, Cambridge MA, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, Division of Nutrigenomics, Victory Nutrition International, Lederoch, PA., Division of Nutrigenomics, Victory Nutrition International, Lederoch, PA., Center for Psychiatric Medicine, Lawrence MA., Department of Neuroscience and Genetics, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Herzliya, Department of Psychiatry, University of Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

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