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Role of Neurochemicals in Schizophrenia

[ Vol. 9 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Sher Singh, Deepa Khanna* and Sanjeev Kalra   Pages 144 - 161 ( 18 )

Abstract:


Background: Schizophrenia is a complex, unpredictable and severe psychiatric disorder, which affects several domains of cognition, behavior and characterized by positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Etiology of schizophrenia represents the involvement of environmental factors, role of genes, social stressors, like discrimination or economic hardship, relationships, childhood difficulty, use of cannabis in adolescence, maternal stress, nutritional deficiencies, maternal infections, intrauterine growth retardation, and complications of pregnancy, while pathophysiology represents dysfunctional neurotransmission of dopamine, stress-associated signaling cascades (gabanergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic, serotonin, and adrenergic singling cascades) and enzymatic changes (acetylcholinesterase, catechol-o-methyl-transferase, monoamine oxidase, and phosphodiesterase).

Objective: The objective of the current review is to determine the role of pathophysiological hypothesis impairments leading to positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.

Methods: Various pathophysiological hypotheses of schizophrenia were identified through searching relevant databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science up to the year 2019, using the keywords schizophrenia, role of dopamine, acetylcholine, oxidative stress, and inflammation in schizophrenia.

Results: Alterations in the neurotransmission of dopamine, stress-associated signaling cascades (Gabanergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic, serotonin, and adrenergic singling cascades) and enzymatic changes (acetylcholinesterase, catechol-o-methyl-transferase, monoamine oxidase, and phosphodiesterase) were compiled in this review for easy learning of Schizophrenia.

Conclusion: Schizophrenia is a major illness defined by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized behavior, and cognitive difficulties such as memory loss. This review aims to provide a brief overview of neurotransmitter role as well as other pathophysiological alterations in schizophrenia. A focus on more predictive animal models and specific biomarkers for positive, negative and cognitive symptoms will help to identify and develop novel therapeutic agents with fewer side effects.

Keywords:

Acetylcholine, dopamine, GABA, neuro-inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunctioning, oxidative stress, pathophysiology, schizophrenia.

Affiliation:

Rajendra Institute of Technology and Sciences, Sirsa-125055, Haryana, Rajendra Institute of Technology and Sciences, Sirsa-125055, Haryana, Rajendra Institute of Technology and Sciences, Sirsa-125055, Haryana

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