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Substance Use Disorder Related to Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Use in Malaysia

Author(s):

Mohammad F. I. Leong Abdullah, Darshan Singh, Balasingam K. Vicknasingam and Christian P. Muller   Pages 1 - 8 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Background: Kratom is a traditional medicinal herb with mild addictive proper-ties. Nevertheless, current available data on substance use disorder related to kratom use is scarce. This study aims to clinically evaluate and identify factors that are associated with kratom use disorder among regular kratom tea/juice users in traditional settings in Malaysia. Methods: 150 regular kratom users were recruited through convenient sampling for this cross-sectional study. They were interviewed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inter-view (M.I.N.I.) to diagnose substance use disorder related to kratom use, while the Ketum Dependence Scale (KDS) and Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS) were administered to evaluate kratom dependence and withdrawal severity. Results: All subjects were males with the majority being Malays (99%, n=148/150). More than half were single (n=84/150), had secondary education (91%, n=136/150), and were em-ployed (93%, n=139/150). Almost all (99%) fulfilled the criteria for substance use disorder related to kratom use, 95% reported withdrawal symptoms on abstinence, 87% reported tolerance, and 93% craving for kratom. Results from Chi-square analysis indicated that high-er quantity (>3 glasses) of daily kratom tea/juice consumption was significantly associated with severe kratom dependence (OR: 2.1: 1.0-4.5: p<.041) and moderate withdrawal (OR: 3.1: 1.5-6.3: p<.002). Similarly, those who consumed >3 glasses of brewed kratom tea daily had higher odds of reporting longer kratom use history (>7 years) (OR: 4.4: 2.2-8.8: p<.001) and higher frequency of daily kratom use (>5 times) (p<.001), compared to those who con-sumed less than three glasses of kratom daily. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that regular and chronic (>3 glasses daily) kratom tea/juice consumption was associated with kratom use disorder, severe kratom dependence and moderate withdrawal

Keywords:

Substance use disorder, kratom use, withdrawal, tolerance, MalaysiaSubstance use disorder, kratom use, withdrawal, tolerance, MalaysiaSubstance use disorder, kratom use, withdrawal, tolerance, Malaysia

Affiliation:

Universiti Sains Malaysia, Lifestyle Sciences Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Centre for Drug Research, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Schwabachanlage 6



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