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Self-Reported Physical, Affective and Somatic Effects of Ecstasy (MDMA): An Observational Study of Recreational Users

[ Vol. 6 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Shannon Fuit, Karel A. Brookhuis, Amie C. Hayley, Luke A. Downey, Aurora J.A.E. van de Loo and Joris C. Verster   Pages 51 - 58 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Background: Assessments of the residual effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are typically restricted to experimental studies. The current observational study aimed to investigate the immediate and delayed cognitive, affective and somatic effects of recreational MDMA and other drug use among adults.

Method: Thirty-eight adults (26 males and 12 females) aged 19-55 years (mean age 32.1 years) who attended a private recreational event in the Netherlands participated in this study. Demographics and recreational drug use history was recorded at baseline. Participants were categorized a priori into groups based on self-reported drug use at the event and were classified as (1) MDMA and other drug use (N=13, MDMA group), (2) drug use other than MDMA (N=11, DRUGS group), and (3) alcohol only (N=14, ALCOHOL group). Participants completed a daily online survey for one week post drug use, and a past week mood assessment using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) at day7 and day 30 post-drug use.

Results: Compared to baseline, the MDMA group reported greater complaints one day post drug use, and some symptoms persisted up to four days. Compared to the MDMA group, the DRUGS group reported greater physical symptoms at one-day post drug ingestion, with some effects present at day 3 post-drug use. No past-week mood differences were detected between groups at day 7 or day 30.

Conclusion: Those who consumed MDMA reported greater somatic complaints on day 1, and symptoms of reduced energy, increased fatigue, and weakness persisted up to four days post drug-ingestion.

Keywords:

MDMA, ecstasy, hangover, affect, cognitive, somatic effects.

Affiliation:

Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht, Groningen University, Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Groningen, Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht

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