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Modulation Effects of Piracetam and Ginkgo biloba on the Cognitive and Working Memory Functions: Psychometric Study

[ Vol. 3 , Issue. 2 ]


Hayder M. Alkuraishy, Ali I. Algareeb, Ali K. Albuhadilly and Basim M. ALmgoter   Pages 87 - 92 ( 6 )


Extracts of Ginkgo biloba have been broadly prescribed for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction ranging in severity from mild to severe memory loss. Piracetam is a nootropic remedy correlated to inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter. It improves cognitive function without sedation.

Objective: The aim in the attending study is to evaluate the outcome of Ginkgo biloba and or piracetam on cognitive, psychomotor performances and working memory functions in normal healthy volunteers.

Methods: Thirty subjects (all are males) arbitrarily chosen from medical college students. The contributors were allowed to perform mutually on the psychomotor performance device tester and the computerized n-back test (working memory task) to obtain knowledge from those tests sooner before the commencing of the examination. All psychometric response time and working memory test parameters were calculated previous to the experimental research, so the identical volunteers considered as control and through four days of receiving the Ginkgo biloba 60mg/day (trunature GSL), piracetam 800mg/day (nootropil) or both drugs. The enrolled participants were divided into three groups. Group (A) were given Ginkgo biloba, group (B) were given piracetam and group (C) were given piracetam and Ginkgo biloba.

Results: Piractam significantly improves cognitive and working memory at all levels (P value is <0.05) while; it showed insignificant effects on psychometric reaction time parameters except it ameliorates the total reaction time (TRT) (P value is <0.05). The differential effects of Ginkgo biloba showed significant effects on psychometric reaction time and cognitive central Integrity (P value is <0.05) and insignificant effects on working memory accuracy except at І-Back level where it produced significant effects P<0.05. Combined effects of ginko biloba and piracetam on psychomotor performances, cognitive function and working memory produced significant effects (P value is <0.05).

Conclusion: Combined effects of piracetam and Ginkgo biloba produced more significant effects on psychomotor performances and working memory functions in healthy young subjects than either Ginkgo biloba or piracetam alone in healthy young subjects.


Cognitive function, Ginkgo biloba, piracetam, psychomotor, working memory.


Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicine, College of Medicine Almustansiriya University, P.O. Box 14132, Baghdad, Iraq.

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