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Transforming Non-Selective Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in C- and N-domain Selective Inhibitors by Using Computational Tools

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 14 ]

Author(s):

Sergio Alfaro, Carlos Navarro-Retamal and Julio Caballero*   Pages 1436 - 1446 ( 11 )

Abstract:


The two-domain dipeptidylcarboxypeptidase Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1; ACE) plays an important physiological role in blood pressure regulation via the reninangiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems by converting angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, and by cleaving a number of other substrates including the vasodilator bradykinin and the anti-inflammatory peptide N-acetyl-SDKP. Therefore, the design of ACE inhibitors is within the priorities of modern medical sciences for treating hypertension, heart failures, myocardial infarction, and other related diseases. Despite the success of ACE inhibitors for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, they have some adverse effects, which could be attenuated by selective domain inhibition. Crystal structures of both ACE domains (nACE and cACE) reported over the last decades could facilitate the rational drug design of selective inhibitors. In this review, we refer to the history of the discovery of ACE inhibitors, which has been strongly related to the development of molecular modeling methods. We stated that the design of novel selective ACE inhibitors is a challenge for current researchers which requires a thorough understanding of the structure of both ACE domains and the help of molecular modeling methodologies. Finally, we performed a theoretical design of potential selective derivatives of trandolaprilat, a drug approved to treat critical conditions of hypertension, to illustrate how to use molecular modeling methods such as de novo design, docking, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, and free energy calculations for creating novel potential drugs with specific interactions inside nACE and cACE binding sites.

Keywords:

Selective angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, docking, molecular dynamics, de novo design, MM/GBSA, myocardial infarction.

Affiliation:

Centro de Bioinformatica y Simulacion Molecular, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Talca, 1 Poniente No. 1141, Casilla 721, Talca, Centro de Bioinformatica y Simulacion Molecular, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Talca, 1 Poniente No. 1141, Casilla 721, Talca, Centro de Bioinformatica y Simulacion Molecular, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Talca, 1 Poniente No. 1141, Casilla 721, Talca

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